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Micronutrient Deficiencies in Food Aid Beneficiaries: A Review of Seven African Countries (African Journal of Food Agriculture Nutrition and Development, Vol 9, No 4, 2009) (.PDF 144KB)

Reviews published data on micronutrient deficiencies in food aid beneficiaries and in general populations of seven African countries that received significant quantities of fortified blended food aid products from 2001-2006.

Effect of Preparation Method on Viscosity and Energy Density of Fortified Humanitarian Food-aid Commodities (International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, iFirst Article, 2009) (external website)

As typically prepared in the field, fortified, blended food aid products do not provide the energy density recommended for products used in complementary feeding of children under two.

Effect of End-User Preparation Methods on Vitamin Content of Fortified Humanitarian Food-Aid Commodities (Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Volume 22, No. 1, 2009)  (.PDF 147KB)

An evaluation of how average preparation (cooking) parameters determined from the data collected in the field affects vitamin stability in common fortified food-aid commodities – corn soy blend (CSB), cornmeal (CM), soy-fortified bulgur (SFB), and vegetable oil (VO).

Storage, Preparation, and Usage of Fortified Food Aid among Guatemalan, Ugandan, and Malawian Beneficiaries: A Field Study Report (Food and Nutrition Bulletin, Volume 29, No. 3, 2008) (.PDF 106KB)

The manner in which food aid commodities are utilized and prepared can affect their nutritional contributions to beneficiaries. Data collected in this field study (32 villages in Uganda, Malawi, and Guatemala) has been used to simulate preparation methods in the laboratory to assess the nutritional impact of cooking. Recorded cooking times for porridges of up to 53 minutes suggest that fuel could be saved and nutritional quality improved if relief agencies emphasized shorter cooking times for better retention of labile vitamins.

The Use of Whey or Skimmed Milk Powder in Fortified Blended Foods for Vulnerable Groups: A Literature Review (Journal of Nutrition, 138:145S-161S, January 2008) (external website)

A review of evidence on the effects of adding whey or skimmed milk powder to fortified blended foods (FBFs) used for malnourished infants and young children or people living with HIV/AIDS. This review was undertaken as part of SUSTAIN’s Food Aid Quality Enhancement Project (FAQEP) to enhance the quality and improve the nutrient delivery to recipients of US food aid.

Food Aid Compliance with Fortification Requirements Improved (Nutriview, 2002/3) (.PDF 159KB)

A brief summary of SUSTAIN’s “Micronutrient Compliance Review of Fortified PL 480 Commodities.”

Micronutrient Compliance Review of Fortified PL 480 Commodities (2001) (.PDF 174KB)

SUSTAIN’s report to USAID on manufacturers’ compliance with new micronutrient standards for fortified PL 480 commodities also identifies need for improvements in quality control/assurance systems.

New Micronutrient Standards for PL 480 Commodities (Food Forum, Second Quarter, 2000) (.PDF 75KB)

Review of key findings and recommendations from SUSTAIN’s Micronutrient Assessment Project. Also discusses USDA’s newly established Total Quality Systems Audit (TQSA) Program for quality control at the manufacturing level.

Reprinted with permission from Food Aid Management (FAM). The publication originally appeared in Food Forum, the newsletter of FAM (Second Quarter 2000, Issue 52).

Ensuring Adequate Micronutrient Levels in Food Aid (Nutriview, 2000/3) (.PDF 517KB)

A summary of SUSTAIN’s Micronutrient Assessment Project and Vitamin C Pilot Project on micronutrient levels in fortified food aid commodities and recommendations for vitamin A fortification of cereal based commodities and vegetable oil.

Final Report of the Micronutrient Assessment Project (1999) (.PDF 750KB)
Appendices A-I. (.PDF 1,202KB)

SUSTAIN’s assessment of the uniformity and stability of key micronutrients added to PL 480 commodities from the point of manufacture to overseas consumption, with recommendations for enhancing the consistency and quality of fortification.

Enhancing the Nutritional Quality of Relief Diets (April 1999) (.PDF 1,137KB)

Summary of a workshop, co-hosted by SUSTAIN on how the micronutrient quality of relief diets can be enhanced at the regional and local levels.

Vitamin A Fortification of PL 480 Vegetable Oil (Fall 1998) (.PDF 233KB)

Report on the technical and biological aspects of fortifying vegetable oil with vitamin A with recommendations on form and level of fortification. Requirements for vitamin A fortification of vegetable oil purchased for food aid programs followed.

Results Report on the Vitamin C Pilot Program (September 1997) (.PDF 309KB)

SUSTAIN’s assessment of the advisability and cost-effectiveness of scaling up vitamin C fortification of food aid commodities. Includes information on the worldwide prevalence of scurvy.

Vitamin C Fortification of Food Aid Commodities: Final Report (Institute of Medicine, 1997) (external website)

IOM’s “Committee on International Nutrition—Vitamin C in Food Aid Commodities” report on the results of a pilot program conducted by SUSTAIN on the advisability and cost-effectiveness of scaling up vitamin C fortification of food aid commodities. Identifies research needed to more effectively meet needs in emergency feeding situations.